3 years ago, Posted by: hassuru

Apa itu Biokultur ? Dan Bagaimana Fenomena Biolkultur Ada di Masyarakat ?

FISIP UNAIR / oleh Dhefrinta

Menurut Foster dan Anderson antropologi kesehatan adalah disiplin ilmu biokultur yang memperhatikan aspek-aspek biologis dan budaya yang saling berhubungan dengan perilaku manusia. Aspek biologi dan budaya  saling berinteraksi sehingga mempengaruhi kesehatan manusia. Interaksi antara biologi dan budaya ini,  disebut dengan Bioculture (Biolkultur). Fenomena biokultur terjadi di lingkungan masyarakat berhubungan dengan biologi dan faktor-faktor sosial atau budaya masyarakat.

Coba kita pelajari 2 contoh fenomena biokultur di bawah ini:

  1. Kebiasaan dan Kepercayaan dalam Memberi Makan pada Anak .ASI menjadi hal penting bagi bayi sebagai asupan makanan. Namun para ibu  beranggapan bahwa ASI tidak mengenyangkan bayi, sehingga diperlukan makanan tambahan. Kebiasaan memberi makanan tambahan untuk bayi masih berlaku di lingkungan Pegirian Surabaya. Seperti halnya pisang sebagai makanan untuk bayi sekitar 2 bulan, hal tersebut dianggap bahwa pemberian pisang sebagai manifestasi tradisi orang Madura yang sulit diubah hingga saat ini. Kemudian pemberian makanan lanjutan yang dominan akan bervariatif ketika bayi telah berurumur lebih dari satu tahun. Pemberian makanan yang semula sebagai makanan tambahan selain ASI, justru mulai menggeser pemberian ASI sebagai makanan utamanya. Beberapa ibu yang memiliki peran ganda sebagai pekerja yang semula mengkombinasika pemberian ASI, namun saat ini pemberian ASI telah tergantikan dengai susu formula.
  2. Kepercayaan Masyarakat Tengger kepada Dukun Bayi. Masyarakat Tengger sangat percaya dengan pengetahuan dan kemampuan dukun bayi dalam merawat bayi setelah lahir. Perawatan bayi yang berlangsung hingga bayi telah berusia 40 hari atau telah mengalami cuplak puser (tali pusar lepas). Dukun bayi juga memberikan ramuan untuk ibu yang baru melahirkan. Ramuan tersebut yang terdiri dari awu, parutan kunir dan air yang telah mendidih. Awu adalah abu hasil dari pembakaran kayu, sedangkan parutan kunyit dapat berfungsi meringankan badan agar segar kembali.  Minuman tersebut berguna untuk mengncangkan kembali kondisi perut dan jalan lahir si ibu menjadi lebih baik. Dukun bayi juga membersihkan ari-ari dan memasukannya ke dalam batok kelapa yang diisi dengan beras, garam, ragi , Lombok dan bawang putih. Pemberian bahan-bahan tersebut dipercaya berguna untuk menolak bala dan menjauhkan bayi dari kesulitan agar tumbuh besar dengan baik. Hal tersebut diyakini sebagai “kancane bayi” atau teman si bayi selama kandungan.

Kepercayaan dan kebiasaan dalam memberi anak memang dipengaruhi oleh lingkungan keluarga. Lingkungan keluarga (Madura) yang memiliki tradisi manifestasi pemenuhan anak dengan memberikan pisang. Tidaklah salah karena pisang dikenal sebagai buah dengan tekstur lembut dan memiliki manfaat bagi kesehatan. Selain itu, di dalam keluarga yang  ibunya memiliki peran ganda akan banyak menyita waktu jika harus menuyusui, sehingga ibu tersebut memilih untuk memberikan anaknya susu formula sebagai pengganti ASI.  Namun begitu, pergantian ASI ke susu formula tidak seharusnya dilakukan secara cepat. Mengingat kebutuhan ASI untuk bayi sangat diperlukan setelah melahirkan. Setidaknya dapat dilakukan setelah 6 bulan usia si bayi.

Kepercayaan masyarakat Tengger dipengaruhi oleh leluhur terdahulunya. Hal tersebut sulit dihilangkan karena kepercayaan tersebut telah menjadi budaya oleh masyarakat Tengger. Dengan demikian kepercayaan tersebut juga berfungsi sebagai penolak bala bagi anak yang baru dilahirkan. Pada dasarnya setiap budaya memiliki tujuannya masing-masing. Dan begitulah yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat Tengger dalam melestarikan budayanya.

Referensi

Dyson, L. (2016). Peran Dokter, Bidan Desa, dan Dukun Bayi Dalam Pelayanan Kesehatan di Masyarakat Tengger. BioKultur, BioKultur, 237–246.

Kim, L. (2014). Antropologi kesehatan. Retrieved September 19, 2017, from https://lyaasskim.wordpress.com/2014/03/17/antropologi-kesehatan/

Koesbardiati, T., Artaria, M. D., Rustinsyah, Ernawan, Y., Haryono, T. J. S., Budiono, B., … Kinasih, S. E. (2014). Membangun Pedoman Gizi Seimbang (PGS) pada Anak Gizi Buruk di Perkotaan melalui Pendekatan Bio-sosio-kultural. BioKultur, Vol.III No, 212–229.

 

 


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