3 years ago, Posted by: hassuru

Hanya Memiliki 2 Partai Politik Setiap Pemilihan Presiden, Sebenarnya Seperti Apa Sistem Politik Amerika Serikat?

FISIP UNAIR/ oleh Dhefrinta

Amerika Serikat dikenal sebagai negara adikuasa. Berbagai hal secara ekonomi, politik, budaya mereka dianggap mendominasi. Melihat dari sejarah Amerika Serikat yang memenangkan perang kemerdekaan dari Inggris dan bertekad menciptakan sistem politik yang berbeda dengan Inggris. Sistem politik Amerika Serikat berdasarkan federasi negara-negara berdaulat yang diatur oleh Pemerintah Federal Amerika Serikat.

Sehingga Amerika Serikat membuat konstitusi pemerintahan dengan 3 elemen, yaitu eksekutif, legislatif dan yudikatif. Peran ekseskutif dipegang oleh Presiden sebagai kepala negara dan Angkatan Bersenjata Amerika Serikat, legislatif oleh kongres bertugas menulis Undang-Undang federal Amerika Serikat, dan yudikatif dipegang oleh pengadilan tinggi yaitu Mahkamah Agung Amerika Serikat.

Pemilihan presiden dilakukan dengan pemilu, bukan melalui pemilihan langsung dan jabatan presiden sesuai dengan peraturan Undang-Undang. Sebagai negara demokratis, sistem politik Amerika Serikat didominasi oleh 2 partai politik yaitu, Partai Demokrat dan Partai Republik. Kedua partai tersebut memiliki usia yang sudah lama.

Partai Demokrat berdiri sejak 1824 dan Partai Republik didirikan pada tahun 1854.Sebenarnya selain kedua partai tersebut, masih ada partai-partai lain. Tidak ada keputusan dari kongres atau konstitusi Amerika Serikat yang memutuskan hanya 2 partai politik untuk maju ke pemilu. Melainkan, alasannya adalah Partai Demokrat dan Partai Republik yang selalu mendapatkan dukungan dari banyak orang. Sehingga setiap pemilihan presiden hanya dipegang oleh 2 partai politik.

Setelah terpilihnya Presiden, maka ia memiliki kewenangan untuk memberikan hak voting Undang-Undang yang telah disahkan oleh kongres dan senat. Presiden juga berhak untuk menyetujui Undang-Undang Majelis Kongres.

Majelis kongres dibagi menjadi 2 terdiri dari Senat Amerika Serikat dan Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat. Keduanya dipilih langsung oleh warga Amerika Serikat. Senat ditunjuk oleh legislatif negara bagian Amerika Serikat. Senat dibentuk dari 100 senator yang bertugas untuk menyetujui Undang-Undang yang disarankan oleh Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat. Masa jabatan senat adalah 6 tahun dengan tidak ada batasan periode maksimal, berbeda dengan presiden yaitu 4 tahun dengan maksimal 2 periode.

Peran yudikatif dipegang oleh Mahkamah Agung yang memiliki hak mengumumkan Undang-Undang pada tingkat federal, negara bagian maupun lokal. Dan Mahkamah Agung juga berhak untuk tidak memberlakukan Undang-Undang.

Referensi

Darlington, R. (2017). A Short Guide To The American Political System. Retrieved December 28, 2017, from http://www.rogerdarlington.me.uk/Americanpoliticalsystem.html

Fair, E. (2016). How does the American political system work? How does the electoral process work, what is the structure of the American Congress like? What is the student government? Retrieved December 28, 2017, from https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/729708/us-election-2016-senate-house-of-representatives-political-system-explained-how-workhttps://www.express.co.uk/news/world/729708/us-election-2016-senate-house-of-representatives-political-system-explained-how-work

Smith, R. (2016). US political system: How does it work? Senate, House of Representatives and more explained. Retrieved December 28, 2017, from https://www.quora.com/How-does-the-American-political-system-work-How-does-the-electoral-process-work-what-is-the-structure-of-the-American-Congress-like-What-is-the-student-government

 

 


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